I'm trying to get this drive to boot again, what would a linux cd do for me?
To be blunt, we don't care about the drive booting or not. It's about accessing the data and saving it to a safe place. Now, with the current boot sector you can not access the volume. The trick when using a linux distri is that linux distris have been known to allow access to volumes that windows doesn't mount: linux is more "forgiving" when it comes to inconsistencies in a volume. So try that, see if the volume can be accessed and if data can be saved.
I aborted the clone to another drive, bhecause it was taking too long and I need to finish this asap.
Yes, we got that but we want to know why the clone is taking so long. If the disk's health has something to do with that you could be in trouble. You should make sure that the disk itself is okay.
Also, cloning to/from USB can take a very long time and is not recommended, could be a cause for the "slow cloning" too.
Since the boot sector and partition table appear to be okay it's possible that the inner structures of the volume are damaged (the delayed write error could have caused damage to the MFT). In that case you should use a tool like iRecover to lift data from the damaged volume. When trying, make sure you start with the demo version, it allows recovery of some files so you can see if it will work for you.